Weight: 2.29 kg Size: 22x16x10 cm Material: Copper
About the Product
Finishing: Full Fire Gold Gilded
Detailed Description of Mercury Gilding - Source wikipedia Fire-gilding or Wash-gilding is a process by which an amalgam of gold is applied to metallic surfaces the mercury being subsequently volatilized leaving a film of gold or an amalgam containing 13 to 16% mercury. In the preparation of the amalgam the gold must first be reduced to thin plates or grains which are heated red-hot and thrown into previously heated mercury until it begins to smoke. When the mixture is stirred with an iron rod the gold is totally absorbed. The proportion of mercury to gold is generally six or eight to one. When the amalgam is cold it is squeezed through chamois leather to separate the superfluous mercury; the gold with about twice its weight of mercury remains behind forming a yellowish silvery mass with the consistency of butter.
When the metal to be gilded is wrought or chased it ought to be covered with mercury before the amalgam is applied that this may be more easily spread; but when the surface of the metal is plain the amalgam may be applied to it directly. When no such preparation is applied the surface to be gilded is simply bitten and cleaned with nitric acid. A deposit of mercury is obtained on a metallic surface using quicksilver water a solution of mercury(II) nitrate the nitric acid attacking the metal to which it is applied and thus leaving a film of free metallic mercury.
The amalgam is equally spread over the prepared surface of the metal the mercury is then sublimed by heat just sufficient for that purpose; for if it is too great part of the gold may be driven off or it may run together and leave some of the surface of the metal bare. When the mercury has evaporated which is known by the surface having entirely become of a dull yellow color the metal must undergo other operations by which the fine gold color is given to it. First the gilded surface is rubbed with a scratch brush of brass wire until its surface is smooth.
It is then covered with gilding wax and again exposed to fire until the wax is burnt off. Gilding wax is composed of beeswax mixed with some of the following substances: red ochre verdigris copper scales alum vitriol and borax. By this operation the color of the gilding is heightened and the effect seems to be produced by a perfect dissipation of some mercury remaining after the former operation. The gilt surface is then covered over with potassium nitrate alum or other salts ground together and mixed into a paste with water or weak ammonia. The piece of metal thus covered is exposed to heat and then quenched in water.
By this method its color is further improved and brought nearer to that of gold probably by removing any particles of copper that may have been on the gilt surface. This process when skillfully carried out produces gilding of great solidity and beauty but owing to the exposure of the workmen to mercurial fumes it is very unhealthy. There is also much loss of mercury to the atmosphere which brings extremely serious environmental concerns as well.
This method of gilding metallic objects was formerly widespread but fell into disuse as the dangers of mercury toxicity became known. Since fire-gilding requires that the mercury be volatilized to drive off the mercury and leave the gold behind on the surface it is extremely dangerous. Breathing the fumes generated by this process can quickly result in serious health problems such as neurological damage and endocrine disorders since inhalation is a very efficient route for mercuric compounds to enter the body. This process has generally been supplanted by the electroplating of gold over a nickel substrate which is more economical and less dangerous.
Fire Gold Plating In Nepal
Face: Gold Painted
Protecting the Face As the face is painted it is highly recommended that the face of the statue is to be greatly taken care of as it requires a very professional and skilled face artist to repair the face of dirt and damages. Commonly to protect it from damage the statue with painted face is placed under a glass box and it is always covered with a cotton face mask if it has to be moved
Video of Face Painting
Making Process: Lost-Wax System
Shakyamuni Buddha: Brief Introduction
The ancient Sanskrit word 'Buddha' means 'having become awoken ' in the sense of having attained 'supreme awareness'. It is closely related to the term 'Bodhi' which refers to awareness. The serene & sublime image of Gautama embodies a condition of compassionate understanding of an awoken illuminated mind. This is a stark contrast to many Western ideas of outward pride muscular vigor & displays of material wealth. Gautama Shakyamuni was born c.563 BCE in Lumbini which is today in Nepal. He concentrated on the cardinal Rule of Desire & its relationship to hate. This Principle pre-existed his lifetime & is a theme common to Hinduism Jainism & similar faiths. Desire is taken in the sense of greed selfishness possessiveness which combine to obscure higher awareness & understanding especially in context with the world around us. He was certain that the suffering of sick people hungry people old people & poor desperate people was caused by & had arisen through a misunderstanding & that misplaced-desire & had generated this suffering.Iconography The idea of freeing the self (ourselves) from material world & the realisation of the supreme self is a theme common to Indian Philosophy. This is why word associated with the liberation such as Moksha Samsara ( cycles of suffering) Karma & Nirvana are common to Hinduism Jainism & Sikhism. The difference between these three schools of thought is twofold 1. How this freeing of the self is attained & 2. What the nature of this freedom 'is'. That is what state of being freed or partly freed actually feels like or how it can be described.
Gautama is painted with golden skin sitting in a lotus seat [Skt. Padmasana] also called the meditative seat [Skt. Dhyanasana] & upon a white moon disc which represents the male principle of method which itself is upon a lotus throne. His left hand touches the ground in what is called bhumisparse mudra which symbolises his own recognition of enlightened mind in one of the most iconic images in all Buddhism. The palm always faces inwards. His feet are deliberately drawn level with one another & enlarged being specific marks of a Buddha. His right hand supports an alms bowl [Skt. Patra] containing the liquid elixir of eternal life. Somehow the simple image of the bowl reflects his overwhelming humility & kindness. He wears the traditionally maroon gold monk's patched robe [Skt. Samghati] made of twenty five pieces of cloth which the first Buddhist monks sewed together. The Buddha has a green nimbus and blue aureole around his body signifying the highest level of understanding. Siddhartha is surrounded by Pink Lotuses [Skt. Padma]. This kind of lotus is connected with loving kindness & a flowering of pure consciousness. The closed bud to his right side represents the past or originating mind the blooming flower represents the present & the buds represents the future Buddha Maitreya and forthcoming realisations. His elongated earlobes depict his royal connection; his knotted black hair & topknot symbolise his abandonment of worldly possessions; the dot [Skt. Urna] on his brow on the command chakra [Skt. Ajna] represents his transcendent wisdom the 31st mark of a Buddha.
Life StoryGautama was born c.563 BCE Lumbini today in Nepal Died c.483 BCE Kushinagar in India. within the Sakya kingdom in Nepal. He family names were variously called Gautama [Skt. 'Best Cow'] & surname Shakyamuni [Skt. meaning 'Sage of the Shakyas'] The name Gautama is linked with a person called Maharshi [Eng. victorious on earth] Gautama who was an ancient seer. Maharshi Gouthama descendents adopted his surname. During his life he was as often called Gautama Tathagata as Gautama Siddhi-hatha as Gautama Buddha. It was in recognition of his spiritual accomplishments he was called Siddhartha & relates to why Gautama is a Hindu avatar. The lineage of 23 Buddhas were for the majority drawn from Janapada Kings & high ranking Brahmins. He studied Buddhist Ideas in several locations in Kashmir & Northern India which to may seem a contradiction in terms this is because to many Gautama Buddha is what Buddhism is. There are in fact two basic schools of thought. 1. That Gautama is recognised for his enlightened reasoning who according to Theravada Buddhism was the 28th Buddha. 2. That he is the Supreme Buddha [Skt. Sammasambuddha] of our age & that he is the be all & end all of Buddhist Doctrine & closely follow his progress or 'life story' & to how he in how became full awoken. In Hinduism he is considered to be the ninth avatar of God Vishnu.
At the age of 29 Siddhartha left his palace in order to meet his people. Despite his father's effort to remove the sick aged & impoverished Siddhartha encountered an old man. Disturbed by this when told that all people would eventually grow old by his charioteer Channa variously a diseased man a decaying corpse and an ascetic. Deeply depressed by these sights he sought to overcome old age illness and death by living the life of an ascetic. He left his palace leaving behind this royal life to become a mendicant. Siddhartha left Rajagaha and practised under two hermit teachers. After mastering the teachings of Alara Kalama Siddhartha was asked by Kalama to succeed him but moved on. He then became a student of Uddaka Ramaputta but although he achieved high levels of meditative consciousness and was asked to succeed Ramaputta he was still not satisfied with his path and moved on. He initially became as ascetic but then After asceticism and concentrating on meditation and Anapana-sati (awareness of breathing in and out) Siddhartha is said to have discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way- a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. Gautama thus journeyed to Deer Park near Varanasi (Benares) in northern India he set in motion the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with whom he had previously sought enlightenment. They together with the Buddha formed the first sangha the company of Buddhist monks. For the remaining 45 years of his life the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain in what is now Uttar Pradesh Bihar & southern Nepal teaching to an extremely diverse range of people from nobles to outcaste street sweepers mass murderers such as Angulimala & cannibals such as Alavaka. The sangha travelled from place to place in India expounding the dharma.
2nd Commentary Gautama's entire Teachings revolve around: The Principle of the Three marks of existence; 1. Dukkha (Sanskrit: du?kha): That all beings suffer from all situations due to unclear mind. 2. Anicca (Sanskrit: anitya): That all things are impermanent. 3. Anatta (Sanskrit: anatman): That the perception of a constant "self" is an illusion. Gautama considers the arising of this suffering & explains that this is caused by a misunderstanding of phenomena (the world around us) which is impermanent [Anicca] which he then related to the illusion of the ego which is actually nothing but an illusion. [Anatta]. He shows that by understanding the nature of the suffering & specifically its arising we can alleviate this or extinguish it altogether.Commentary The Principle of the Four Noble Truths: that suffering is an inherent part of existence; that the origin of suffering is ignorance and the main symptoms of that ignorance are attachment and craving; that attachment and craving can be ceased.
1.To live means to suffer because the human nature is not perfect and neither is the world we live in. During our lifetime we inevitably have to endure physical suffering such as pain sickness injury tiredness old age and eventually death; and we have to endure psychological suffering like sadness fear frustration disappointment and depression. Although there are different degrees of suffering and there are also positive experiences in life that we perceive as the opposite of suffering such as ease comfort and happiness life in its totality is imperfect and incomplete because our world is subject to impermanence. This means we are never able to keep permanently what we strive for and just as happy moments pass by we ourselves and our loved ones will pass away one day too.
2. The origin of suffering is attachment. The origin of suffering is attachment to transient things and the ignorance thereof. Transient things do not only include the physical objects that surround us but also ideas and -in a greater sense- all objects of our perception. Ignorance is the lack of understanding of how our mind is attached to impermanent things. The reasons for suffering are desire passion ardour pursuit of wealth and prestige striving for fame and popularity or in short: craving and clinging. Because the objects of our attachment are transient their loss is inevitable thus suffering will necessarily follow. Objects of attachment also include the idea of a "self" which is a delusion because there is no abiding self. What we call "self" is just an imagined entity and we are merely a part of the ceaseless becoming of the universe.
3. The cessation of suffering is attainable. The cessation of suffering can be attained through nirodha. Nirodha means the unmaking of sensual craving and conceptual attachment. The third noble truth expresses the idea that suffering can be ended by attaining dispassion. Nirodha extinguishes all forms of clinging and attachment. This means that suffering can be overcome through human activity simply by removing the cause of suffering. Attaining and perfecting dispassion is a process of many levels that ultimately results in the state of Nirvana. Nirvana means freedom from all worries troubles complexes fabrications and ideas. Nirvana is not comprehensible for those who have not attained it.
4. The path to the cessation of suffering. There is a path to the end of suffering - a gradual path of self-improvement which is described more detailed in the Eightfold Path. It is the middle way between the two extremes of excessive self-indulgence (hedonism) and excessive self-mortification (asceticism); and it leads to the end of the cycle of rebirth. The latter quality discerns it from other paths which are merely "wandering on the wheel of becoming" because these do not have a final object. The path to the end of suffering can extend over many lifetimes throughout which every individual rebirth is subject to karmic conditioning. Craving ignorance delusions and its effects will disappear gradually as progress is made on the Noble Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of attachment and craving and therefore suffering.