Weight: 0.31 kg Size: 8x5.5x3 cm Material: Brass and Stone
About the Product
Finishing: Stone Setting
Process: Sand Casting
The process cycle for sand casting consists of six main stages which are explained below Mold-making -The first step in the sand casting process is to create the mold for the casting. In an expendable mold process this step must be performed for each casting. A sand mold is formed by packing sand into each half of the mold. The sand is packed around the pattern which is a replica of the external shape of the casting. When the pattern is removed the cavity that will form the casting remains. Any internal features of the casting that cannot be formed by the pattern are formed by separate cores which are made of sand prior to the formation of the mold. Further details on mold-making will be described in the next section. The mold-making time includes positioning the pattern packing the sand and removing the pattern. The mold-making time is affected by the size of the part the number of cores and the type of sand mold. If the mold type requires heating or baking time the mold-making time is substantially increased. Also lubrication is often applied to the surfaces of the mold cavity in order to facilitate removal of the casting. The use of a lubricant also improves the flow the metal and can improve the surface finish of the casting. The lubricant that is used is chosen based upon the sand and molten metal temperature.
Clamping - Once the mold has been made it must be prepared for the molten metal to be poured. The surface of the mold cavity is first lubricated to facilitate the removal of the casting. Then the cores are positioned and the mold halves are closed and securely clamped together. It is essential that the mold halves remain securely closed to prevent the loss of any material. Pouring - The molten metal is maintained at a set temperature in a furnace. After the mold has been clamped the molten metal can be ladled from its holding container in the furnace and poured into the mold. The pouring can be performed manually or by an automated machine. Enough molten metal must be poured to fill the entire cavity and all channels in the mold. The filling time is very short in order to prevent early solidification of any one part of the metal.
Cooling - The molten metal that is poured into the mold will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the cavity. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies the final shape of the casting is formed. The mold can not be opened until the cooling time has elapsed. The desired cooling time can be estimated based upon the wall thickness of the casting and the temperature of the metal. Most of the possible defects that can occur are a result of the solidification process. If some of the molten metal cools too quickly the part may exhibit shrinkage cracks or incomplete sections. Preventative measures can be taken in designing both the part and the mold and will be explored in later sections.
Removal - After the predetermined solidification time has passed the sand mold can simply be broken and the casting removed. This step sometimes called shakeout is typically performed by a vibrating machine that shakes the sand and casting out of the flask. Once removed the casting will likely have some sand and oxide layers adhered to the surface. Shot blasting is sometimes used to remove any remaining sand especially from internal surfaces and reduce the surface roughness.
Trimming - During cooling the material from the channels in the mold solidifies attached to the part. This excess material must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing or using a trimming press. The time required to trim the excess material can be estimated from the size of the casting's envelope. A larger casting will require a longer trimming time. The scrap material that results from this trimming is either discarded or reused in the sand casting process. However the scrap material may need to be reconditioned to the proper chemical composition before it can be combined with non-recycled metal and reused.
Amitabha Buddha: Brief Introduction
Amitabha is head of the Lotus Family one of oldest & significant of the Five Buddha Families. This family represents love purity compassion & peace. Amitabha Purelandis a place of infinite bliss & boundless light. He will guide you along a path of simplicity and purity towards such a place where you can find inner contentment. Amitabha will help you overcome addictions and cravings. IconographyAmitabha Buddha is also one of the five Tathagatas representing the wisdom of discriminating awareness (skt. Pratyavekshanajnana). When discriminating wisdom dawns on us we realize Non-production or non-origination of all things. He also represents purified form of desire.
Amitabha Buddha is red in color. He is represented in the stupa facing to the west. He rides on peacock symbolizing that he can take away the suffering of others just as the peacock eats poisonous plants and yet his tail shines forth.
Amitabha in Sanskrit means immeasurable light or limitless light. He resides in the western land of unlimited bliss (skt. Sukhavati). He is assisted by two Bodhisattvas viz. Avalokiteshvara and Mahasthamaprapta. When he was a bodhisattva he was called Bhikshu Dharmakara. He made vows to establish an adorned land of unlimited bliss to ferry over those living beings who recite his name. On the basis of those vows any living being who has faith makes vows and practices diligently will be received by this Buddha and reborn in the pure land of unlimited bliss.
Amitabha Buddha presides over the Bhadrakalpa i.e. Fortunate Aeon. He always exhibits Dhyana mudra. He belongs to the Lotus family. He originates from the seed syllable Hrih. He can be recognized through the symbol of the lotus. With his extensive vows and great compassion this Buddha has ferried over innumerable sentient beings. The recitation of the name of Amitabha Buddha is a common practice in China and Japan. In Tibet too devotees recite very often the prayer to be reborn in the land of Amitabha Buddha.urityCommentaryThe word 'Amitabha' is composed of 2 syllables. Amita-[Skt.] translates as infinite & -bha universal life or simply the universe. Related Sanskrit words include bha-va asin Bhavachakra & Bha-gavad as in Bhagavad Gita. Amitabha is often translated as Boundless Light which is taken to be the boundless Universe. Amitabha realised a Pure Land called Sukhavati which meanspossessinghappinessin Sanskrit. Sukhavati is situated in the uttermost west beyond the bounds of rational understanding. By the power of his vows he made it possible for all who call upon him to be reborn into this land there to undergo instruction by him in the dharma and ultimately become bodhisattvas & Buddhas. Amitabha is one of the five Transcendent Buddhas emanated from the primeval 'Adi' Buddha Vajrdhara. Each of the transcendent Buddhas has arisen to help us overcome the five obstructions [Skt. Kleshas] to our spiritual growth and each is the Head of a Family. The Sanskrit word Klesha means poison in the sense of curruption. For this reason the transcendent Buddhas are called Wisdom Buddhas; they possess the wisdom to overcome viz. transcend the five obstructions are greed hatred delusion jealousy & pride. Amitabha is formed to help us overcome greed [often expressed as desire]. Greed is conceived of as a thirst [Skt. Tanha] or appetite for the destructive things that harm us such as smoking alcohol & selfishness. The transcendent Buddhas are sometimecalled the Meditation [Skt. Dhyana] Buddhas as people meditate on their wisdoms to overcome the five obstructions to spiritual growth to anable us to reach a higher level of understanding.